Spain had a long history with the slave trade from Africa, predating the conquest of the Americas. But Spain’s connections to Africa and the slave trade set it apart from other European Atlantic empires, especially from its Iberian neighbor, Portugal, in that until the end of the eighteenth century its participation in the traffic was indirect.
Debating whether “Spaniards of African descent” should be citizens, delegates to the first Spanish constituent assembly meeting in Cádiz in 1810 assumed that individuals of African descent existed only in the New World.
Abolition and women’s political emancipation are often read in conjunction.
In this essay I present a reading of Ana Manuela Mozo de la Torre's extensive, seventy-two-page letter written from Cuba and addressed to Fernando VII of Spain.